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Risk of chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease in people with HIV should be assessed together
Michael Carter, 2017-11-21 07:50:00
People with HIV
should have their risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney
disease (CKD) assessed together, results from the D:A:D study published in PLOS Medicine show. Investigators found
that individuals with a high predicted risk for both CVD and CKD had a much
greater risk of developing both CVD and CKD events, compared to people with a
high predicted risk for CVD or CKD alone and people assessed as low risk for
“In this analysis
we found that HIV-positive people with high predicted CVD or CKD risk were at
significant risk for a future CVD or CKD event, and that this risk was
multiplicative for those with greater degrees of risk,” comment the authors.
“We observed a far higher CKD event rate for those at high risk of both CVD and
CKD…the CKD event rate in those with a high CKD risk was highly sensitive to
the degree of CVD risk.”
treatment and care mean that many people living with HIV have a normal or
near-normal life expectancy. However, there is accumulating evidence that
HIV-positive individuals are more likely to develop diseases of ageing at an
earlier age than their HIV-negative peers.
In the general
population, there is a well-established connection between CKD and increased
risk for CVD. Moreover, CVD is in turn associated with an elevated risk of CKD.
A similar relationship between CKD and CVD risk has been reported in
the D:A:D collaboration of eleven cohorts in Europe, the US, Argentina and
Australia have developed HIV-specific risk models for CVD and CKD. Investigators
hypothesised that people enrolled in
D:A:D with a high (5% or greater) five-year risk of both CVD and CKD would have
especially high rates of events for both conditions.
designed a study involving 27,215 people who were in care between 2004 and
2015. The rates of CKD and CVD events were calculated according to five-years
risk for these conditions (low = 1% and below; medium = 1-5%; high = above 5%).
Analyses were conducted to see if CKD and CVD risk had a multiplicative effect
on the incidence of events.
contributed a total of 202,034 person-years of follow-up. Three-quarters were
male and the median age at baseline was 42 years. Overall, 13% of people were
assessed as having a high CVD risk, with 18% having a high CKD risk and 6%
having a high risk for both morbidities.
Overall, the CKD
event rate was 7 per 1000 person-years and CVD event rate was 4.5 per 1000
People with a
high risk of CVD had an almost six-fold (5.63; 95% CI, 4.47-7.09, p < 0.001)
increase in their risk of a CKD event compared to low CVD-risk patients.
People with a high CKD risk had significant increase in their risk of a CVD
event compared to low-risk patients (1.31-fold; 95% CI, 1.09-1.56, p = 0.005).
“We found that both chronic diseases were
associated with an elevated risk of the other,” comment the authors. “Overall,
our results suggest that among people living with HIV, the association between
CVD risk and a future CKD event is stronger than the association between CKD
and a future CVD event.”
The conditions had
a multiplicative effect for CVD. For people with a low risk of both CKD and
CVD, the CVD event rate was just 0.45 per 1000 person-years, but for people with a high risk of both conditions, the CVD rate was 16.5 per 1000
“CVD and CKD risk
in HIV-positive persons should be assessed together,” conclude the
investigators. “These data also suggest that the primary prevention and
effective management of those with comorbidities, prioritising those
interventions that have been repeatedly shown to be effective in the general
population, will convey the same if not greater benefits for the population of
HIV-positive persons.” The researchers also recommend that prevention and
management of co-morbidities should be incorporated into HIV treatment and care